Rio de Janeiro translates to "January River" in English. However, there is no river in Rio, only a large bay. Portugese explorers found the bay on the twentieth of January, 1502 (and added Rio because that was a word used for any large body of water). When the city was founded some 63 years later it was officially named, São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro 20, after Saint Sebastian.
The photographer who took the above picture describes life in the city's favelas. These improvised buildings surround Rio and many other Brazilian cities, housing the poorest city dwellers. She describes the situation,
As for the real dangers of the favela, that would just be crossfire between the military police and the dealers or between two rival dealers. It’s pretty much a daily thing, so it’s not really any major deal for the regular people who live there.
The Brazilian government has recently announced plans to invest $1.7 billion to improve living conditions in the favelas. That money is expected to bring running water, street lighting, hospitals and schools to these neighborhoods.
Rio de Janeiro's statue of Christ the Redeemer made the cut in the recent 7 Wonders poll. Completed in 1931 it's the newest of the "new 7" and one of three located in Central or South America.